- A match comprises two 45-minute halves separated by a 15-minute break time.
- A match requires a minimum of 7 players, and each team must have at least 11 players (including one goalkeeper who is the only player allowed to handle the ball within the 18-yard box).
- Artificial or natural grass must be used on the pitch. Pitch sizes might vary, but they must be between 100 and 130 yards long and 50 to 100 yards broad. A rectangle form around the edge of the pitch must be designated with out of bounds, two six-yard boxes, two 18 yard boxes, and a center circle. A penalty area 12 yards distant from both the goals and the center circle must also be visible.
- The ball must be round in form and have a 58-61cm circumference.
- Each side has the option of naming up to seven substitute players. Substitutes can be made at any moment throughout the game, with each team having a maximum of three substitutions. If all three reserves are used, and a player is forced to leave the field due to injury, the team will play without a replacement.
- One referee and two assistant referees are required for each game (linesmen). The referee’s job is to keep track of time and make necessary decisions, such as fouls, free kicks, throw-ins, penalties, and added time at the end of each half.
- Throughout the match, the referee may confer with the assistant referees about a decision. The assistant referee’s job is to spot offsides in the game (see below), throw-ins for either team and assist the referee in all decision-making processes where necessary. If a match goes to extra time because both teams are tied, 30 minutes will be added in the form of two 15-minute halves after the allotted 90 minutes.
- A penalty shootout is required if the sides are still tied after extra time.
- The entire ball must cross the goal line to be considered a goal.
- A player may earn a yellow or red card for fouls committed, depending on the severity of the foul; this is at the referee’s discretion. A yellow card serves as a warning, whereas a red card results in the player’s ejection. One red card is equal to two yellow cards, and a player who has been sent off cannot be replaced.
- A throw-in is awarded when a ball is knocked out of play by an opponent on one sideline. It’s a goal kick if it comes out of playoff an attacking player on the baseline, and it’s a corner kick if it comes from a defender.
In football, there is a rule known as the offside rule.
When a pass is delivered through to an attacking player in advance of the final defender, offside might be called. The offside zone is intended to deter players from just waiting for a ball near the opponent’s goal. When the ball is played, they must be put behind the last defender to be onside. If the player is in front of the last defender, he is considered offside, and a free kick is awarded to the other team.
In their half, a player cannot be caught offside, and a goalie is not considered a defender, and the player is not regarded as offside if the ball is played backward and in front of the final defender.
In Victorian Britain, the emergence of modern football was directly linked to movements of industry and urbanization. The majority of the new working-class residents of Britain’s industrial towns and cities increasingly abandoned ancient bucolic pleasures like badger-baiting in favor of new forms of communal recreation. From the 1850s onwards, more and more industrial employees had free Saturday afternoons, and many of them flocked to the new sport of football to watch or play. Working-class boys and men were formed into recreational football teams by key urban organizations such as churches, labor unions, and schools. Rising adult literacy boosted coverage of organized sports in the press. At the same time, transportation infrastructure like trains and urban trams made it possible for players and fans to get to football games. In England, average attendance grew from 4,600 in 1888 to 7,900 in 1895, 13,200 in 1905, and 23,100 at the onset of World War I. The dominance of football has decreased public interest in other sports, particularly cricket.